Em busca de instituições de capitalismo desenvolvimentista

resgatando modelos de crescimento em países emergentes

Autores

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.20336/rbs.816

Palavras-chave:

modelo de crescimento, blocos sociais, capitalismo comparado, Variedades de Capitalismo, social blocs

Resumo

Como explicar que algumas economias emergentes crescem mais rápido do que outras? Qual a razão da sustentabilidade do seu crescimento? Nem todos os tipos de capitalismo em mercados emergentes contribuem igualmente para taxas de crescimento sustentadas ​​que alicercem o desenvolvimento. Estudos de capitalismo comparativo sobre os modelos de crescimento temporário das economias europeias visam superar a estase das variedades do capitalismo. A adoção de modelos de crescimento em pesquisa sobre capitalismo de mercados emergentes requer atenção à integração na economia global e às coalizões políticas, e precisa superar os desafios metodológicos, dadas a elevada informalidade do mercado de trabalho e a instabilidade política. Este artigo busca dar sentido às mudanças nos componentes dos sucessivos modelos de crescimento ao longo de uma multiplicidade capitalista dependente de trajetória, expandir o marco analítico dos modelos de crescimento testando elementos junto à demanda (e oferta) com base em um estudo de caso do Brasil e explorar coalizões na reforma econômica para identificar os blocos sociais do modelo de crescimento. Seus resultados são a identificação dos desafios à aplicação dos conceitos e marco analítico existentes; da necessidade de estabelecer pontes entre os modelos de crescimento e a economia política do desenvolvimento; e uma avaliação exploratória das contribuições do modelo de crescimento para o desenvolvimento do Brasil no pós-guerra. Daí, no longo prazo, as mudanças de interesses das elites econômicas entre regimes econômicos liberais e não liberais sugerem fragilidade das repetidas tentativas de formar uma coalizão desenvolvimentista durável, e uma dinâmica de processo que desgasta as externalidades positivas do capitalismo permeado pelo Estado. Conclui-se que tanto as instituições desenvolvimentistas dependentes de trajetória, que impedem a mudança, quanto a instabilidade do crescimento limitam as possibilidades de costurar reformas institucionais para além da armadilha da renda média.

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Publicado

2021-09-01